September 2018 – March 2019
Yom Kippur, also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services.
Autumnal Equinox is today!
The autumnal (fall) equinox is the first day of the fall season.
As the earth travels around the Sun in it orbit, the north to south position of the sun changes over the course of the year due to the changing orientation of the earth’s tilted rotation axes. The dates of zero tilt of the earth’s equator correspond to the spring equinox and the autumn equinox.
Equinoxes occur when the axis of rotation of the earth (i.e. the line from the north to south poles) is exactly parallel to the direction of motion of the earth around the sun. This happens on just two days of the year, the spring and autumn equinoxes. This means that day length is exactly the same (12 hours) at all points on the earth’s surface on these days (except right at each pole, where it will be about to change from permanent light to dark, or vice versa).
Seasons are opposite on either side of the equator, so the equinox in September is known as the autumnal (fall) equinox in the northern hemisphere, and is considered the first day of fall. At the same moment in time in the southern hemisphere, it is known as the vernal (spring) equinox, and marks the first day of spring.
Mardi Gras = Fat Tuesday
A brief history of Mardi Gras…
Some think Mardi Gras may be linked with the ancient Roman pagan celebrations of spring and fertility such as Saturnalia, which dates back to 133–31 B.C. This celebration honored the god of agriculture, Saturn. It was observed in mid-December, before the sowing of winter crops. It was a week-long festival when work and business came to a halt. Schools and courts of law closed, and the normal social patterns were suspended.
On the Julian calendar, which the Romans used at the time, the winter solstice fell on December 25. Hence, the celebration gradually became associated with Christmas.
4 B.C. Onward
The festival is more commonly associated with Christian tradition. In the Gospel of Matthew the biblical Magi (also called the ‘Three Wise Men’ or ‘Three Kings’) visited Jesus with gifts containing gold, frankincense, and myrrh. So on the twelfth day of Christmas, Christians celebrate the feast of Epiphany, a celebration of Jesus coming for more than just the Jews, as even Gentile magi were allowed to see him. This begins the Carnival celebration which continues until the day before Ash Wednesday. The culmination of this celebration overlapped with the beginning of Lent. Early Christians believed that during the Lenten season (the forty days between Ash Wednesday and Easter, not including Sundays), Christians should deprive themselves of anything (especially foods) that brought joy so that they might understand better the trials that Jesus faced leading up to his death on Good Friday. Thus, on the Tuesday before Lent and the last day of Epiphany, Christians would celebrate with a feast of their favorite foods to tide them over the coming weeks.
These feasts, which first were only meant for Christians, were expanded so that Christians would celebrate with their neighbors and friends. Slowly, feasts like Shrove Tuesday became public celebrations and adapted many names and traditions as they spread.